Energy derived from non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind and biofuels.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The professional body of the US standards and conformity assessment system
American Petroleum Institute (API)
National trade association that represents America’s oil and natural gas industry.
Identifying improvements by referring to competitors' actions and products. The results can be used to achieve improvements and best practice in different aspects of our operations.
A lower-carbon fuel, made from biomass, that can offer similar performance to unleaded petrol. It can also be used in existing vehicles and infrastructure.
Diesel fuel made from natural, renewable sources such as vegetable oils.
The variety of classified life forms within a given ecosystem, often used as a measure in designating an area for conservation.
Alcohol-based fuel produced from crops containing sugars (such as sugar cane) or starches (such as corn).
Fuels derived wholly or in part from natural, renewable sources, notably sugar, wheat, maize or oilseed crops such as soy and rape. New generations of biofuels are being explored, using the whole plant in the process, and utilizing feedstocks such as grasses and agricultural wastes.
Biological material, usually plant-based, that provides a more sustainable energy source than fossil fuels. The growing crop takes up CO2 from the atmosphere, offsetting the CO2 released by combustion.
Substance produced during the crude oil distillation process, which can be used to seal the surface of roads and highways. Also known as asphalt.
The Baker Report
Report of the US Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel, following the Texas City incident in 2005, involving a fire, explosion, fatalities and injuries.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS)
Technology which can help reduce CO2 emissions by capturing carbon from conventional fossil fuels, typically at power plants, and storing it in geological reservoirs deep underground.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Naturally-occurring gas that also results from burning fossil fuels and biomass. Human-caused carbon dioxide emissions come from power plants, transportation, households and commercial enterprises.
The amount of CO2 that we produce in our day-to-day activities, for example by using electrical appliances, heating our homes, driving and air travel.
The concept of requiring consumers and companies to pay for the carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases they cause to be emitted. BP supports this measure, as it would provide an economic incentive to reduce emissions and invest in low-carbon alternatives.
Variations in global climate or in regional climates over time, which may produce changes in weather patterns, rising sea levels and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.
CO2 equivalent (CO2e)
Greenhouse gas emissions, including methane emissions, are converted to the quantity of CO2that would create an equivalent warming effect.
Code of conduct
BP’s commitment to integrity, summarizing our expectations and standards for employee behaviour.
System that enables BP shareholders and their representatives on the board to ensure that the company pursues its defined purpose.
The contribution BP or any other company makes to the wider community through its core business activities.
Days away from work case frequency (DAFWCF)
Frequency of work-related injuries (per 200,000 recorded manhours worked) that cause the injured person to be away from work for at least a normal shift, after the shift on which the injury occurred, because he/she is unfit for any work as deemed by a physician.
The systematic removal and disposal of offshore installations and pipelines when operations cease.
Desired economic and/or social growth within a community, country or region.
Dialogue and engagement
Working with groups and individuals affected by our business to establish effective lines of communication and to build mutually advantageous and
Discharges to water
Substances or pollutants that are released into oceans, seas, rivers and lakes.
A safety system for tankers in which the inner hull serves as protection against oil spills in the event of the ship running aground, or coming into contact with another ship or solid object.
The refining, selling and distribution of products derived from fossil fuels.
Consuming less fuel or electricity with the same or better results, either by using different products or changing behaviour. Using energy-saving lightbulbs and driving in a higher gear are two examples.
Development of local business ventures, designed to be mutually advantageous for BP and the community.
Environmentally sensitive areas
Areas recognized,as requiring special attention to protect the natural environment. These include World Heritage Sites, World Conservation Union designated sites and national forests and parks.
EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)
The allocation and trading of greenhouse gas emissions allowances throughout the EU. One allowance represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent. At the end of each year, operators are required to ensure they have enough allowances to cover their installation's emissions. If not, they can buy additional allowances; if they have surplus allowances as a result of reducing their emissions, they can sell them.
European Union (EU)
An economic and political union of 27 member states, located primarily in Europe. It was established by the Treaty of Maastricht on 1 November 1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing European Economic Community.
External advisory panel
Unaffiliated group that provides independent verification and makes recommendations to the group chief executive on social and environmental performance related to a specified project.
Flaring and venting
Ignited (flaring) and unignited (venting) release of natural gas into the atmosphere. Flaring and/or venting of gas can be required in oil and gas operations to ensure the facility operates safely.
Fuels, such as oil, natural gas and coal that, which result from the decay of dead plants and animals over millions of years.
Fuel cell vehicles
Vehicles that use hydrogen-powered fuel cell technology as an alternative to normal internal combustion engines.
Natural gas is generally considered the cleanest-burning fossil fuel.
BP’s gas-fired power activities consist of modern combined-cycle gas turbine plants that emit around half as much CO2 as conventional coal plants of the same capacity. We also have several low-carbon co-generation gas power facilities, in which heat is extracted and used in industrial processes such as oil refining.
A joule is a unit of chemical energy; a gigajoule is one billion joules. A barrel of oil is around six gigajoules.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
The GRI framework sets out the principles and indicators that organizations can use to measure and report their economic, environmental and social performance.
Increasingly accepted view that the earth’s temperature is being increased, in part due to emissions of greenhouse gases associated with human activities. Today the term climate change is more commonly used to describe the phenomenon.
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG)
Gases which are believed to contribute to climate change. This occurs through natural processes such as decomposition, but also through human activities such as transport using internal combustion engines. In BP, GHG refers to the sum of our operations’ carbon dioxide and methane emissions, expressed as CO2 equivalent.
BP’s group standards set out clear expectations, processes and principles for employee and organizational compliance, and the control of risks at group level.
BP wants to be recognised as competitively successful and a force for progress. We do so by producing energy in a way that is progressive, responsible, innovative and performance-driven.
Hazardous waste disposal
Planned and managed disposal of hazardous waste in a way which minimizes risks to people and the environment.
A group-wide awards programme that recognizes BP teams who demonstrate our brand attributes while delivering value to our business and stakeholders.
Consisting only of carbon and hydrogen, hydrocarbons are the main components of fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas.
Process that transforms fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas into hydrogen and CO2. The hydrogen is used to generate electricity, while most of the CO2 can be captured and stored underground, where it can be used to help force out oil that is difficult to reach.
Independent advisory panels
Unaffiliated team of advisors that provides assurance, and is also mandated to advise and make recommendations to advise the group chief executive on social and environmental performance related to a specificed project.
Business sold by BP to INEOS in December 2005.
Integrated biodiversity assessment tool (IBAT)
IBAT for business is an online tool/database of accurate and up-to-date biodiversity information to support critical business activities.
Steps we take to ensure the safety of our facilities
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Programme, the IPCC prepares assessments, reports and guidelines on the science of climate change and its potential impacts;, technological developments; and possible national and international responses to climate change.
International Energy Agency (IEA)
An inter-governmental organisation which acts as energy policy adviser to its 28 member countries.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
Financial reporting standards and interpretations set by the International Accounting Standards Board.
International oil company (IOC)
Oil companies that are mostly privately owned.
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA)
IPIECA brings together the oil and gas industry, serving as a forum for discussion and co-operation on global environmental and social issues. It is one of the industry’s main channels of communication with the United Nations.
A standard from the International Organization for Standardization which sets outs the requirements for an environmental management system. ISO 14001 certification requires an audit by a competent external party.
Thousand barrels per day.
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in 1997, is generally seen as the first step towards global action on climate change. It sets,binding targets on greenhouse gas emissions to signatory nations.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Although a fossil fuel, LPG has lower carbon emissions than petrol or diesel, and is cheaper too.
Crude oil, condensate and natural gas liquids.
When ordinary natural gas is cooled to a certain temperature it becomes a liquid, greatly reducing its volume and making it easier to transport in large quantities in tankers. When reheated it turns back into gas and is distributed through pipelines.
Carbon is one of the main greenhouse gases that help hold heat in the atmosphere, causing the earth’s temperature to rise. Low-carbon energy, such as that from wind, solar and biofuels, has less harmful effects.
The technologies used to produce low-carbon energy, such as carbon capture and storage, , solar cells, and advanced techniques for producing biofuels.
BP’s system of internal control includes the complete set of management systems, organizational structures, processes, standards and behaviours that are employed to conduct the business of the group and deliver returns to shareholders.
How we prioritize the issues to include in our sustainability reporting – by assessing their potential risk to our business at group level, and the level of external awareness of the issue.
Thousand barrels of oil equivalent – a standardised unit of measurement for reporting production of crude oil, natural gas liquids and natural gas. A boe is the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 US gallons) of crude oil.
The provision of financial services, such as microcredit, microsavings or microinsurance, to people who lack access to banking services in some communities where we operate. Most transactions involve small amounts of money, often less than $100.
Million metres cubed.
National oil company (NOC)
An oil company fully or mostly owned by a national government.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
General term for any oxygen compounds of nitrogen, or a mixture of them. In BP this generally refers to the sum of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, and is expressed in units of nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
Non-GHG air emissions
Gases released to atmosphere excluding greenhouse gases. Non-GHG air emissions include sulphur and nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons. These occur in a variety of BP operations, and can contribute to air pollution.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
Operational and advocacy .organizations that are independent of government, though some are fully or partially funded by government. NGOs tend to focus on humanitarian issues, developmental aid and sustainable development.
Occupational health and safety
Cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.
Oil reserve replacement
Industry term expressing the rate at which production of oil is replaced by new oil discoveries – essentially the measurement of how well an oil company is replenishing its supplies. A healthy ratio should be over 100%.
Third-party, confidential helpline through which BP employees can raise their concerns about a range of issues.
Operating management system (OMS)
BP’s framework of processes, standards and practices to help deliver consistent performance, progressing to excellence, in operations and safety.
Managing plant and equipment throughout their life cycle to prevent injury to people or damage to the environment through loss of containment, structural failure or unintended release of stored energy.
The safety of individuals as protected by training, processes and other measures to prevent incidents such as slips, falls and vehicle accidents.
Refers to systems for the oil and gas exploration and production industry, which encompasses geology, geophysics and seismic processing.
Chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum or other hydrocarbon origin.
Photovoltaic solar panels
Solar panels convert the sun’s energy into usable electricity. Each panel is powered by a number of photovoltaic cells made from silicon, the same chemical substance used in microchips.
Pipeline inspection gauge (PIG)
Advanced investigation or repair tool sent through a pipeline and propelled by the pressure of the product in the pipeline itself. Also known as smart PIGs.
A quantity used in energy statistics, representing energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources that has not undergone any conversion or transformation process.
Prevention of leaks, spills, equipment malfunctions, over-pressures, excessive temperatures, corrosion, metal fatigue and other conditions.
Recordable injury frequency (RIF)
Frequency of work-related injury and illness incidents (per 200,000 recorded man hours worked) that result in a fatality; day away from work; restricted work or job transfer; or medical treatment beyond first aid.
Removal of pollution or contaminants from soil, groundwater, sediment or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or for a site intended for redevelopment.
Energy derived from resources that are regenerative, or for all practical purposes cannot be depleted.
Process of identifying and assessing risks, and then selecting the best course of action to minimise these risks, without impacting overall business objectives.
Small and medium- sized enterprises.
Extraction of usable energy from the light of the sun. Solar energy is in widespread use in locations where other power supplies are absent.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
A colourless gas belonging to the family of gases called sulphur oxides (see below). Coal burning is the largest man-made source of sulphur dioxide, accounting for about 50% of annual global emissions. Oil burning accounts for a further 25-30%.
Sulphur oxides (SOx)
General term for any of the oxygen compounds of sulphur, or a mixture of them. In BP, this generally refers to the sum of sulphur dioxide and trioxide, and is expressed in units of sulphur dioxide (SO2). Sulphur dioxide is an air pollutant from the fuel combustion process.
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Programme set up by BP to help individual car owners participate in the mitigation of climate change. targetneutral advocates the use of public transport and energy-efficient cars, and provides car owners a means to offset their carbon emissions.
A unit of measurement equalling 1,000kg or 2,204.6lb.
Town hall meetings
A meeting at a BP site or office, usually given by a member of senior management and often attended by a large number of people.
UN Global Compact
International initiative that brings together companies, UN agencies, labour organizations and civil society in support of 10 principles covering human rights, labour, the environment and corruption.
The exploration, production and transport of oil before refining.
Utilized equivalent distillation capacity (UEDC)
A normalized measure of production used globally in the refining industry.
Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights
A set of non-binding principles, which BP helped develop in collaboration with governments, NGOs and extractive industry companies, that provide guidance on mitigating security risks while respecting human rights.