Science capital and the STEM skills gap

BP wants to understand why there is a STEM skills gap in the UK and what needs to be done to close it. We are partnering with the Science Museum Group and King’s College London on a major collaborative research and development programme for science education. It’s called Enterprising Science

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What is science capital?

Enterprising Science and the concept of Science Capital

Our research has found a clear relationship between a student’s level of science capital and their future aspirations in STEM subjects.  Science capital is determined by an individual’s science-related qualifications, their understanding and knowledge about science and knowing someone who works in a science-related job. The higher an individual’s science capital, the higher the likelihood they will pursue a STEM career.

Girls and those with low cultural capital are particularly likely to be over-represented among those students with low science capital.

What is Science Capital?

Science capital is a science-related form of cultural capital. This was originally defined by a French sociologist called Pierre Bourdieu and represents how your knowledge and social connections can help you get ahead in life.

We conducted a survey of secondary school students, aged 11-15 years, across England and found a clear relationship between a student’s level of science capital and their future aspirations.
Our research findings suggest that there is an urgent need to raise the overall level of science capital, particularly to improve post-16 STEM participation rates and to tackle gender inequality.  This requires action in late primary and early secondary school years.
We found that only a small percentage (5%) of students has high science capital and around 27% are classed as having low science capital. Our analysis also found that science capital is unevenly spread and is concentrated in more privileged social groups and strongly related to cultural capital, gender, ethnicity and school science set.  This has implications for young people’s access to, participation in and engagement with science.

Significantly, our findings suggest that girls and those with low cultural capital are more likely to be over-represented among students with low science capital who lack confidence in their science identities and feel that others do not see them as ‘science people’.

What is BP doing to raise a young person’s Science Capital?

The insight from the Enterprising Science research informs all of BP’s work with schools, from employee volunteering to production of teaching resources.

BP is working with young people, their families, their teachers and museum educators to help them understand how to inspire, engage and support many more young people in their science education, including supporting young people to understand the careers possibilities within and from STEM subjects. 

We want to help teachers to become more skilled and confident to use museums and science centres to support their teaching.  We are developing tools and techniques for them to engage all young people with science and sharing these through the Talk Science professional development courses and Project ENTHUSE.

We are developing the content over a five-year period with around 400 young people and their families, and over 60 teachers and museum educators. The Talk Science training is reaching over 2,200 teacher and museum educators over the same period.

What can you do to help raise a young person’s Science Capital?

It will take the collective action of parents, teachers and organisations like BP to help develop and grow a young person’s science capital over time.

As a student - you could look for examples of science, technology, engineering and maths in the world around you, both in terms of the environment and future careers. Think about going to a museum, or a science centre, join your school STEM club or explore the many STEM inspired websites where you can play games and learn how to create science experiments at home.

As a parent - talk to your children about where they see science and technology in everyday life and encourage them to think about how that relates to all sorts of jobs and careers (not just those in science and engineering). You don’t need to know the answers, just help them to grow in confidence asking the questions. 

As a teacher -  after-school STEM clubs, planned and purposeful visits to science centres and linking careers context to your curriculum teaching all encourage young people to develop their ‘science identity’, which is an important element of science capital. Look for ways for young people to build a conversation at home about the science and technology in the world around them and to see how it is relevant to their lives.

There are many resources available to inspire young people and to help them improve their science capital. Visit some of the links below for inspiration.

Resources for parents and carers

Do some fun science experiments at home.
Support your local school’s after-school STEM club.
Take your kids to science and discovery centres to experience STEM in action.
Take your kids to a planetarium to find out more about astronomy.
Visit a local zoo.
Support conversations with your child about careers using science and maths.

Resources for teachers and museum edcators

Run an after-school STEM club.
Make more use of STEM Ambassadors. 
Attend Talk Science. 
Encourage pupils to take on the Ultimate STEM Challenge
Look for STEM careers resources at and
Encourage your pupils to think about careers using STEM subjects

Resources for students

Have a think about careers using science and maths.
Explore a wide range of career possibilities using STEM subjects.
Do some fun science experiments at home.
Join an after-school STEM club.
Join your local library.
Play some science based games online.
Download science and engineering activities and project packs.
Experiment with your own engineering projects

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