This reduction was primarily due to operational changes such as planned shutdowns at several of our refineries for maintenance and actions taken by our businesses to reduce emissions in areas such as flaring, methane and energy efficiency. Our sustainable GHG emissions reductions amounted to 0.5Mte in 2017.
However, we saw increases in the total volume of flaring – the controlled burning of gas during oil and gas production – in our upstream business. This was mainly due to the start up of our Khazzan gas development in Oman.
We also track GHG intensity, which is the quantity of GHG emitted per a defined unit of production or processing.
In 2017 we saw an improvement in our upstream GHG intensity, mostly due to changes in two countries. In Angola, emissions reduced due to increased gas being captured and exported to the liquefied natural gas facility. And, we increased production in Egypt as we started up the first phase of our West Nile Delta development.