1. Home
  2. Who we are
  3. BP Geel
  4. production
  5. PTA


PTA is short for purified terephthalic acid 


PTA has the form of a white, crystalline powder and looks like powdered sugar. It is quite inert, which means that, for example, it is difficult to dissolve in water or other liquids. PTA is an aromatic acid, primarily applied in the production of polyester. The main raw material for PTA is paraxylene (PX).
The Geel site has been producing PX locally since 2000 and provides a large part of the PTA manufacturing need for this raw material. The remainder of the necessary PX is imported from elsewhere.


When Amoco Chemicals Belgium was established in 1967, the production of PTA (purified terephthalic acid) had already been planned. In 1969, the first PTA unit (PTA1) came on line and in 1991 the second one (PTA2) followed. One year later, PTA1 was converted so that it could also produce PIA (purified isophthalic acid). In 2004, the global PIA business was sold to Flint Hills Resources, which decided to close the Geel unit in 2011. In 1998, PTA3 came on line. In 2001, the PTA3 capacity was increased to 650,000 ton per annum. In 2009, another PTA expansion program led to an overall annual production capacity of 1.4 million tonnes. In 2014, the Indian company JBF started production of PET on a field next to the BP plant in Geel. The PET factory uses a lot of the Geel PTA production.


The Geel BP site is Europe's most important producer of purified terephthalic acid. Other BP PTA production units are in North America and Asia. BP is one ot the word leaders in PTA production. Proprietary technology allows BP to produce high-quality PTA at low cost.


BP Aromatics is committed to leading the PTA industry in minimising its environmental impact and in supporting our customers in their sustainability goals by helping to reduce the environmental footprint of polyester products.


This commitment has led us to conduct life-cycle assessments of the products manufactured on our sites and enabled us to focus our efforts on the activities of greatest impact in terms of greenhouse gases, water and waste.



Our focus on understanding the full life cycle of our products has greatly supported the continuous improvement of the environmental performance of our proprietary PX and PTA technologies: we estimate that our latest generation PTA technology delivers 65% fewer GHG emissions 75% less water discharge and 95% less solid waste disposal than conventional PTA technology of the 1990’s2.

By applying the latest PTA technology to the world-scale production facilities at Cooper River, South Carolina and Geel, Belgium, we expect to greatly improve feedstock and energy efficiency thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

In support of a wider sustainability agenda, BP Aromatics Ltd NV launched a new low carbon PTA3: PTAir in  2016.

A feature of PTAir is its use of proprietary PX and PTA technology which supports a 29% lower global warming potential than the average European PTA production4. This low carbon benefit has been independently assured by ERM CVS5.

In addition to this BP Aromatics has also be launched PTAir Neutral, the world’s first certified CO2e neutral PTA6.

PTAir Neutral offers customers the opportunity to purchase a carbon neutral product where associated CO2e emissions are mitigated through the investment in carbon projects providing equivalent CO2 benefits and delivering a net zero position.

These projects, located around the world, provide economic, social and environmental benefits to the communities they serve serve and provide organisations with the ability to make a positive impact upon society.

We believe by collaborating in these activities with our customers and our customers’ customers we are taking an important step to improving sustainability in the polyester industry and moving towards a lower carbon future.


The largest application for PTA is in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for the polyester industry to produce PET-bottles, textiles, film and moulded product applications.PET, the most common polyester, has many advantages, including clarity, beneficial electrical properties as well as resistance to chemicals and weathering. Here are some of the applications:

Food and drink containers and packaging

  • PET has become the primary raw material for soft drink and water bottles in Europe.
  • Lightweight soft drink containers based on PTA are crystal clear and shatterproof.
  • PET film, sheet and moulded containers for food packaging continue to grow in popularity. Boil-in-the-bag pouches (e.g. for rice), consist of polyester films. Cooking utensils and packaging, suitable for the microwave, as well as packaging for fresh and prepared food are often based on PTA. 

Fibres for clothing and home furnishings

Fibres command the bulk of today's polyester market. PET is the mainstay of easy-care blend fabrics either mixed with cotton or wool or with other natural and synthetic fabrics. Polyester fibres, based on PTA, offer economy, comfortable fashion and crease resistance in all types of clothing and fabrics for home furnishings.

Industrial and high performance fibres

PET monofilament is popular in sewing thread, conveyor belts and meshing. Other PET fibres provide high strength, durability and resistance to environmental degradation in tyre cord, fire hosing and other demanding applications. PTA-based aramid fibres, for example, have a strength to weight ratio of up to five times greater than steel. Aramids are also the basis for soft body armour, safety clothing and industrial cable. Composites reinforced with aramid fibres provide toughness and light weight for sporting goods, boat hulls and aerospace parts.

Polyester film and tape

PET is being used for a multitude of films, labels and other sheet material are typical polyester applications. PTA helps provide outstanding dimensional stability, adaptable surface and good resistance properties to meet the demands of these applications. PET is also used in a variety of wrapping and strapping tapes.

Electrical insulation

The high purity of BP's PTA helps assure reliable performance of polymers in insulating applications. PTA-based polyester and polyamide (nylon), electrical insulating tapes and films as well as varnishes for magnet wire offer chemical, electrical and thermal resistance.


Polyester powder coatings offer the environmental advantages of solvent-free coatings along with excellent flexibility, adhesion, and impact resistance. They also show outstanding gloss and weather resistance for applications such as lawn furniture, outdoor equipment, and automotive parts.


Reinforced with glass or other fibres, resins based on PTA provide mechanical, thermal and electrical properties for automotive parts and electrical appliance housings


PTA is used to manufacture light-coloured adhesives to bond metal, wood, paper and synthetics. Specific uses for these high-strength, solvent-free adhesives include shoe fabrication, lamination and automotive sub-assembly.

1. PTAir is a trade mark of BP p.l.c.
2. Derived from BP’s internal analysis Evaluating Energy Processing Technology, conducted in 2016. Data in this internal analysis was derived from BP’s actual operating data from six of its PTA manufacturing facilities.
3. Based on data in the independent cradle-to-gate “Eco-Profile of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and p-Xylene Produced by BP in Geel,” prepared by Institut Und Umweltforschung Heidelberg (IFEU), dated March 2016, which uses Plastics Europe Methodology to compare the environmental impact of 1 Kg of BP Geel PTA manufactured with BP integrated PX (integrated production) to PTA produced in Europe. The European data is contained in the report entitled “An Eco-Profile and Environmental Product Declaration of the PET Manufacturers in Europe, Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA),” prepared by the Committee of PET Manufacturers in Europe (CPME aisbl), dated February 2016. Both studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 14040–44 requirements. Data for both studies included BP’s 2013 Geel production
data. A mass balance approach was used, which was based on the proportion of integrated PX versus the total consumption of PX.
4. This figure is compared to the Global Warming Potential (100 years) per 1 kg PTA as published in the Environmental Product Declaration of the PET Manufacturers in Europe February 2016. PTA produced by BP Aromatics NV in Geel is included in the European study average and represents ~30% of the total installed production capacity in Europe in the input
5. The full assurance opinion of ERM CVS can be found at https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/country-sites/en_be/belgium/home/documents/assurancestatement.pdf 
6. Carbon neutrality of PTAir Neutral achieved by BP Aromatics Limited NV, BP Zhuhai Chemical Company Ltd., and BP Aromatics Ltd. PTAir is certified to the PAS 2060 standard for defined periods and assured by DEKRA Assurance Services GmbH.