The EU and national governments have set ambitious targets for reducing CO2 emissions from trucks. In the UK, the government is aiming to reduce heavy-duty truck emissions by 15% from 2015 levels by 2025, and the German government has introduced road tolls for heavy-duty vehicles with exemptions for trucks that run on CNG and LNG1. In response to these measures, truck manufacturers are rapidly pivoting their portfolios to lower carbon models. Most manufacturers have pledged that by 2040, 100% of their sales will be either electric-powered or fuel cell-powered vehicles.
However, while the truck manufacturers are moving quickly to develop new vehicles, the industry needs to move just as quickly to develop the infrastructure required to deliver these new lower carbon fuels. Data suggests that zero-emission vehicles will represent 37% of all medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicle sales in Europe by 2030.2 This will need to be supported by 140,000 public and destination electric charging points and 1,500 hydrogen fuelling stations.3
The decarbonisation of the trucking sector will be a significant challenge for fleet operators. Lower carbon and zero-emission trucks and the infrastructure needed to fuel them are, today, relatively expensive and not yet widely available. In addition, there is greater complexity in decarbonising trucks than in the transition to electric passenger vehicles.
Electric and hydrogen fuel cell trucks, and the technology needed to support them, are not yet available at scale. Therefore, other ‘transition’ fuels, such as renewable diesel and bio-LNG could help fleet managers take some important first steps towards decarbonising their operations. All of this means that truck fleet operators are going to need a range of transition fuels at different points over the next decade and beyond.4
At bp, we believe flexibility is essential if we are to help our fleet customers navigate their way through the energy transition. We are focusing on providing four different options and technologies.
HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil) is made from cooking fats and other waste oils that are specially treated and turned into cleaner substitute fuels, such as diesel and jet fuel. It can reduce net CO2 emissions by up to 90%, NOx by 30% and other harmful vehicle particulates by 85%.
5We acquired a 30% stake in Green Biofuels in February 2022. Its’ product can be used in diesel engines today without additional vehicle modifications or investment.
Biomethane gas is captured from organic waste as it breaks down at landfill sites or processed in anaerobic digestors. While bio-CNG is a compressed form of biomethane, bio-LNG is the liquid form. Both can be used in gas trucks, helping to reduce emissions by up to 85%6.
In December 2021, we acquired a 29% stake in Gasrec, the UK’s largest dual provider of bio-LNG and bio-CNG for road transport. Gasrec built the UK’s first bio-LNG station and today refuels around 40% of the UK’s gas-powered heavy-duty trucks.7
Electric vehicles (EV) use a battery to store power from the electricity grid that is then used to run an electric motor to turn the wheels. Because trucks are larger than passenger cars, they typically need a lot more power to ensure the battery is charged in a timely way. When the electricity used to run an EV is made from renewable sources, tailpipe emissions fall by 100%.
bp pulse, bp’s EV charging business, is rapidly growing its network for both passenger cars and the truck industry – with a particular focus on ultra-fast charging. We also work with our fleet customers to install and operate charging points at their sites and dedicated charging hubs.
Globally, bp aims to grow its network of public EV charging points by 2030 to over 100,000 worldwide, with a particular focus on ultra-fast charging. And in July 2022, we opened our first ultra-fast-charging facilities aimed at medium and heavy-duty electric trucks on our retail site at Schwegenheim in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.
Hydrogen can be made in different ways and when used in a fuel cell, it is turned into electricity to power a vehicle, with water vapour the only tailpipe emission. Hydrogen’s energy density (how much energy it can store) makes it an ideal option for heavy-duty, long-haul transport, although there are many challenges to overcome, including developing the technology and infrastructure, vehicle costs, as well as considering the emissions caused during the green hydrogen production process.
Working with vehicle manufacturers and technology specialists, bp is helping to overcome those challenges to start building the production facilities and infrastructure to create reliable hydrogen mobility. This includes the green hydrogen hub HyGreen Teesside in northeast England, which is expected to make enough green hydrogen to power 1,300 heavy-duty trucks8.
Last year, we announced that bp and Daimler are partnering to help accelerate the introduction of a hydrogen network, supporting the roll-out of a key technology for the decarbonization of UK freight transport9. Together, we intend to pilot both the development of hydrogen infrastructure and the introduction of hydrogen-powered fuel-cell trucks in the UK.
While we intend to develop new dedicated electric charging and hydrogen sites, we also have a vision to create a network of mobility hubs along key logistics corridors across Europe providing fleets with a range of energy options, including traditional fuels.10 We want to future proof these hubs so we can adapt our energy options to our fleet customers’ changing needs and support them at every stage of their decarbonisation journey. And we want to design networks to support driver wellbeing by providing them with essential amenities.
We are already working with some of our biggest fleet customers to help them navigate the energy transition. Understanding their needs and challenges means we can help them access the right fuels at the right time to keep their fleets on the road. Now, we want to do the same to help them realise their decarbonisation goals. Working with new partners to develop the right operating and technical solutions over the next decades, we aim to offer those customers the flexibility and support they need on the road to help them reduce emissions from their truck fleets.
Its clear that the refuelling network that has served passenger cars, trucks and buses for the past century will need to undergo a huge change to support customers of the next 100 years. It will take a lot of investment, partnerships and significant work to create this new mobility backbone for the world.
2. WEF_RFZ_Pathways_to_faster_adoption_of_zero_emission_trucks_2021 – which cites McKinsey analysis
3. WEF_RFZ_Pathways_to_faster_adoption_of_zero_emission_trucks_2021 – which cites McKinsey analysis
4. EO22 Transportation Outlook Booklet 290422 FINAL using Demand 2050
5. bp acquires 30% stake in the UK’s largest provider of low emission hydrogenated vegetable oil fuels
10. Low carbon mobility hubs_updated draft.pdf (MM Comments 6 May 2022)
bp press office London, firstname.lastname@example.org, +44 7919 217511
We also announced our partnership with VW where we plan to develop ultra-fast EV charging network at bp retail sites, and for bp’s charging networks to be integrated into VW Group vehicles.
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