The BP Statistical Review of World Energy provides high-quality objective and globally consistent data on world energy markets. In our at-a-glance overview, growth in global primary energy consumption remained low in 2016; and the fuel mix shifted away from coal towards lower carbon fuels
- Global primary energy consumption increased by just 1% in 2016, following growth of 0.9% in 2015 and 1% in 2014. This compares with the 10-year average of 1.8% a year.
- As was the case in 2015, growth was below average in all regions except Europe & Eurasia. All fuels except oil and nuclear power grew at below-average rates.
- Energy consumption in China grew by just 1.3% in 2016. Growth during 2015 and 2016 was the lowest over a two-year period since 1997-98. Despite this, China remained the world’s largest growth market for energy for a 16th consecutive year.
- Emissions of CO2 from energy consumption increased by only 0.1% in 2016. During 2014-16, average emissions growth has been the lowest over any three-year period since 1981-83.
- The Dated Brent oil price averaged $43.73 per barrel in 2016, down from $52.39 per barrel in 2015 and its lowest (nominal) annual level since 2004.
- Oil remained the world’s leading fuel, accounting for a third of global energy consumption. Oil gained global market share for the second year in a row, following 15 years of declines from 1999 to 2014.
- Global oil consumption growth averaged 1.6 million barrels per day (Mb/d), or 1.6%, above its 10-year average (1.2%) for the second successive year. China (400,000 b/d) and India (330,000 b/d) provided the largest increments.
- Global oil production in contrast, rose by only 0.4 Mb/d, the slowest growth since 2013.
- Production in the Middle East rose by 1.7 Mb/d, driven by growth in Iran (700,000 b/d) Iraq (400,000 b/d) and Saudi Arabia (400,000 b/d).
- Production outside the Middle East fell by 1.3 Mb/d, with the largest declines in the US (-400,000 b/d), China (-310,000 b/d) and Nigeria (-280,000 b/d).
- Refinery throughput growth slowed from 1.8 Mb/d in 2015 to 0.6 Mb/d last year. Refining capacity grew by only 440,000 b/d, versus 10-year average growth of 1 Mb/d, causing refinery utilization to rise.
- World natural gas consumption grew by 63 billion cubic metres (bcm) or 1.5%, slower than the 10-year average of 2.3%.
- EU gas consumption rose sharply by 30 bcm, or 7.1% - the fastest growth since 2010. Russia saw the largest drop in consumption of any country (-12 bcm).
- Global natural gas production increased by only 21 bcm, or 0.3%. Declining production in North America (-21 bcm) partially offset strong growth from Australia (19 bcm) and Iran (13 bcm).
- Gas trade grew by 4.8%, helped by 6.2% growth in LNG imports/exports.
- Most of the net growth in LNG exports came from Australia (19 bcm out of 21). US LNG exports rose from 0.7 bcm in 2015 to 4.4 bcm in 2016.
- Global coal consumption fell by 53 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe), or 1.7%, the second successive annual decline. The largest declines in coal consumption were seen in the US (-33 mtoe, an 8.8% fall) and China (-26 mtoe, -1.6%). Coal consumption in the UK more than halved (down 52.5%, or 12 mtoe) to its lowest level in our records.
- Coal’s share of global primary energy consumption fell to 28.1%, the lowest share since 2004.
- World coal production fell by 6.2%, or 231 mtoe, the largest decline on record. China’s production fell by 7.9% or 140 mtoe, also a record decline. US production fell by 19% or 85 mtoe.
Renewables, hydro and nuclear energy
- Renewable power (excluding hydro) grew by 14.1% in 2016, below the 10-year average, but the largest increment on record (53 mtoe).
- Wind provided more than half of renewables growth, while solar energy contributed almost a third despite accounting for only 18% of the total.
- Asia Pacific overtook Europe & Eurasia as the largest producing region of renewable power. China overtook the US to be the largest single renewables producer.
- Global nuclear power generation increased by 1.3% in 2016, or 9.3 mtoe. China accounted for all of the net growth, expanding by 24.5%. China’s increment (9.6 mtoe) was the largest of any country since 2004.
- Hydroelectric power generation rose by 2.8% in 2016, (27.1 mtoe). China (10.9 mtoe) and the US (3.5 mtoe) provided the largest increments. Venezuela experienced the largest decline (-3.2 mtoe).