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Country insight – Indonesia

Indonesia’s coal consumption increased by 7.4% in 2017, reaching a historical high

Fast facts

1    Indonesia’s primary energy consumption increased by 5.0% – its fastest rate in the past five years


2    Indonesia’s coal production increased by 1.3%, rebounding from a 1.4% decline in 2016


3    The share of coal in Indonesia’s energy mix increased to 32.6%

+5.0% – Growth in Indonesia energy consumption
Growth in Indonesia’s energy consumption
7.2% – Indonesian share of global coal production
Indonesia’s share of global coal production
174% – Ratio of natural gas production to consumption
Ratio of natural gas production to consumption
57% – Ratio of oil production to consumption
Ratio of oil production to consumption


  • Indonesia’s energy consumption increased by 5.0%, well above the 10-year average growth of 2.9%. Consumption has doubled over the past 20 years.
  • Coal consumption grew rapidly (+7.4%), exceeding the 10-year average (+6.3%) and reaching its highest level ever.
  • Oil remained Indonesia’s dominant fuel (44.1% of primary energy consumption), followed by coal (32.6%) and natural gas (19.2%).
  • Indonesia produced only 57% of its oil consumption in 2017; the country ran an oil surplus as recently as 2002.
  • Natural gas consumption rose by 2.6% after two consecutive years of declines.
  • After reaching its all-time high in 2016, hydro dropped by 5.0% and accounted for 2.4% of Indonesia’s energy consumption.
  • Renewables in power generation (1.7% of primary energy consumption) increased by 15.9% in 2017, much higher than the 10-year average of 5.4%.
  • Indonesia’s coal production increased by 1.3% to 272 mtoe, reversing the decline of 1.4% in 2016 but well below the 10-year average annual increase of 8.9%.
  • The ratio of coal production to consumption decreased to 475% in 2017, compared to 504% in 2016.
  • Oil production experienced growth (+7.9%, +70 Kb/d) for the second consecutive year after a sustained decline from 2011-2015.
  • Natural gas production dropped for a seventh year in a row (by 3.6%, or 2.8 bcm) and is now 22% below the 2010 peak.
  • Indonesia’s CO2 emissions from energy use increased by 5.5%, to reach 512 Million tonnes in 2017.
  • Energy intensity (that amount of energy required per unit of GDP) decreased by just 0.1% in 2017, in comparison with an average annual decline of 2.7% over the past 10 years.