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Country insight – Indonesia

In 2020, oil accounted for almost two-thirds of the decline in primary energy consumption with its share dropping to 35% of the energy mix

Fast facts

1    Indonesia was the second largest coal producer globally (14 EJ) with coal used for ‎export and increasingly in domestic power generation (66% share)‎


2    Indonesia was the largest global biodiesel producer at 126 kboe/d. Biodiesel ‎production increased 2.3% in 2020 while all forms of fossil fuel production fell


3    CO2 emissions per unit of GDP fell 5.2% in 2020, significantly faster than the 0.7% ‎average annual decline over the previous decade


Change in primary energy ‎consumption in 2020‎


Decline in oil consumption


Growth in renewables ‎consumption


Reduction in carbon ‎emissions

At a glance

  • Energy consumption decreased by ‎‎‎0.6 EJ in 2020. The largest decline ‎‎was in oil (-0.4 EJ) which accounts ‎‎for 65% of the decline in primary ‎‎energy, with additional declines in ‎‎natural gas (-0.1 EJ) and coal (-0.2 ‎‎EJ).‎
  • Fossil fuels contributed to 93% of ‎‎Indonesia’s 8.1 EJ primary energy ‎‎demand, with coal (40%), oil ‎‎‎(35%) and natural gas (18%) the ‎‎three dominant sources.
  • Coal continued to increase as a ‎fraction of primary energy by ‎displacing oil and natural gas, ‎increasing from 39% in 2019 to ‎‎43% in 2020.
  • The use of renewables increased ‎by 6.3%, led by other renewables ‎‎(5.3%). Together, renewables ‎provided 4.5% of primary energy, ‎up from only 1.6% in 2009.‎
  • Oil consumption fell by 12% to 1.4 ‎‎Mb/d, its lowest level since 2009.
  • Last year electricity generation fell ‎by 1.6%, down relative to the prior ‎‎10-year average growth rate (5.9% ‎pa).
  • The bulk of the decline in ‎electricity generation was in ‎natural gas (-18%) and oil (-36%) ‎with an increase in the use of coal ‎‎(3.4%), hydro (17%), and ‎renewables (13%).
  • Coal (-9.0%), natural gas (-6.8%), ‎and oil (-4.9%) production all ‎decreased in 2020.
  • Net CO2 emissions from energy ‎‎use fell by 7.4% in 2020 to levels ‎‎last seen in 2018.‎
  • CO2 emissions per unit of GDP fell ‎by 5.2% in 2020, significantly ‎faster than the 0.7% average ‎yearly decline in the previous ‎decade.‎