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Regional insight – Middle East

The Middle East accounts for one-third of global oil production, one-sixth of gas production, 48% of proved oil reserves and 38% of proved gas reserves

Fast facts

   Energy demand in the Middle East increased by 2.4% in 2018, below the 10-year average of 3.8%

 

2    While oil consumption remained almost flat in 2018 (-0.1%), gas increased by 4.9% and renewables by 34%

 

3    Oil production increased by 265 Kb/d in 2018, with declines in Iran (-310 Kb/d) compensated by increases especially in Saudi Arabia (395 Kb/d)

+2.4% – Increase in primary energy demand in 2018
Increase in primary energy demand in 2018
-0.1% – Decline in oil demand in 2018
Decline in oil demand in 2018
98% – Share of oil and gas in the primary energy mix
Share of oil and gas in the primary energy mix
34% – Share of global oil production
Share of global oil production

At a glance

  • Energy consumption increased by 3.4% in 2017, below the 10-year average. Growth was particularly strong in Iran (+16 mtoe, over half the regional increase). 
  • Oil and gas account for 98% of the energy mix and 95% of electricity generation, both unchanged from last year. 
  • Oil production declined by 250 Kb/d, with the largest declines since 2009 in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE; since 2006 in Oman; and since 2002 in Qatar. Growth focused in Iran and Iraq. 
  • The region exported 19.9 Mb/d of crude in 2017, representing 45% of global trade. Gross refined product exports of 4.1 Mb/d accounted for 17% of global trade. 
  • Oil consumption increased by 1.4%, below the 10-year average. Growth was driven by Iran (+5.4%) while Saudi Arabia (-0.5%) saw its highest decline since 1995. 
  • Gas production increased by 4.9% driven by strong growth in Iran (+10.5%) and Saudi Arabia (+6.1%). In Qatar, production failed to grow for the first time since 1987. 
  • LNG exports from the Middle East (-2.5% in 2017) represent 31% of global LNG trade. Qatar remained the top LNG exporter in the world (103 bcm). 
  • Gas consumption increased by 28 bcm. Growth was particularly strong in Iraq (+21.2%), Qatar (+10.3%), Iran (+6.8%) and Saudi Arabia (+6.1%). UAE consumption dropped (-0.5%) for the first time since 2014. 
  • Electricity generation increased by 4.2% in 2017, below the 10-year average of 5.4%. Growth in Saudi Arabia (+5 TWh) was the lowest since 1999, while Iran’s increase (+18 TWh) was the highest ever. 
  • Energy intensity (the amount of energy required per unit of GDP) in 2017 exhibited the highest growth since 2009 and second highest since 2002. It increased by 2.6%, after dropping by 3.4% in 2016. 
  • CO2 emissions from energy use increased by 2.9% in 2017 and the region’s share of global emissions reached a record level (6.3%).