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Regional insight – Middle East

Fast facts

   Energy demand in the Middle East decreased by 3.1% in 2020, in contrast to an ‎average increase of 3.1% over the past 10 years

 

2    While oil consumption fell sharply in 2020 (-8.0%), natural gas consumption ‎increased by 1.2% and renewables by 34%

 

3    Oil production decreased by 2.5 Mb/d in 2020 with significant declines across the ‎region, led by Saudi Arabia (-0.8 Mb/d) and Iraq (-0.7 Mb/d)‎

-3.1%

Decrease in primary ‎energy demand in 2020

-8.0%

Decline in oil demand in ‎‎2020

98%

Share of oil and gas in the ‎primary energy mix

31%

Share of global oil ‎production

At a glance

  • Energy consumption decreased by ‎‎3.1% in 2020, in contrast to the ‎‎10-year average of +3.1%. ‎
  • Oil remains a key component of ‎energy consumption with a 43% ‎share, but demand fell sharply in ‎‎2020 (-8.0%).‎
  • Natural gas countered the trend in ‎falling energy consumption, ‎increasing by 1.2% in 2020. Its ‎share grew to 55% of total energy ‎demand in the Middle East from ‎‎52% in 2019 and 45% in 2009.‎
  • The use of renewables continued ‎to grow quickly in 2020 (+34%), ‎but below the 10-year average ‎‎(+43%) and still represents a ‎negligible share of energy demand ‎‎(0.5%). Hydro fell by 24%, ‎contributing 0.6% of demand, ‎while nuclear rose by 23% ‎providing 0.2% of demand. ‎
  • Electricity generation increase by ‎‎0.6% in 2020, much lower than ‎the 10-year average of +4.5%. Iran ‎‎(+3.8%) and Israel (+2.4%) saw ‎the largest growth rates.‎
  • Oil production fell by 2.5 Mb/d in ‎‎2020 (-8.3%), led by Saudi Arabia (-‎‎6.7%), Iraq (-14%), UAE (-8.6%), ‎Iran (-9.3%) and Kuwait (-9.7%). ‎
  • Gas production increased by ‎‎8.4 bcm in 2020 driven by increase ‎in Iran (+3.6%) but offset by falling ‎production in Kuwait ( 17%) and ‎UAE (-4.7%).‎
  • Middle East oil exports decreased ‎by 6.5% in 2020, but the region ‎remains the largest exporter of oil ‎at 22 Mb/d, representing 34% of ‎global trade. ‎
  • LNG exports fell slightly to ‎‎127 bcm in 2020, with global share ‎unchanged y-o-y at 26%. Qatar’s ‎share of exports was around 22%, ‎matched by Australia  the first ‎time since 2005 that Qatar has not ‎been the single largest exporter.‎
  • Energy intensity (the amount of ‎energy required per unit of GDP) ‎increased by 1.1% in 2020, nearly ‎twice the 10-year average.‎
  • CO2 emissions from energy use ‎decreased by 4.0%, compared to ‎the 10-year average increase of ‎‎2.7%.‎