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Country insight – Brazil

Brazil’s primary energy consumption reached 298 mtoe in 2018, 1.3% higher than in 2017. Hydro and renewables growth offset declines in oil, gas and coal

Fast facts

   Energy consumption in 2018 increased below the 10-year average as fossil fuel demand dropped by 2.3 mtoe


2    CO2 emissions dropped by 3.7% in 2018 while energy intensity remained flat


3    2018 saw a strong growth in hydro and renewables so that non-fossil fuel share in the energy mix increased from 37% in 2017 to 39% in 2018


4    Brazil is the world’s second largest Biofuels producer and in 2018 production reached its record high

+1.3% – Growth in primary energy consumption in 2018
Growth in primary energy consumption in 2018
-3.7% – Growth in CO2 emissions in 2018
Growth in CO2 emissions in 2018
2nd – World’s second largest hydro consumer
World’s second largest hydro consumer
401 Kboe/d – Biofuels production in 2018, a new record high
Biofuels production in 2018, a new record high

At a glance

  • Energy consumption increased at 1.3% p.a. in 2018, below the 10-year average of 2.5%. Growth was driven by hydro (+4 mtoe; 4.5%) and renewables (+2 mtoe; 11%).
  • CO2 emissions declined by 3.7% in 2018 reaching levels last seen in 2012. Between 2014 (when they reached its highest level) and 2018 emissions have decreased by 12%.
  • Energy intensity (the amount of energy required per unit of GDP) remained flat in 2018 with respect to 2017 after having increased swiftly since 2013.
  • Fossil fuel consumption dropped by 2.3 mtoe in 2018 after having increased by 4.5 mtoe in 2017. In 2018, fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix was 61%, down from 63% in 2017.
  • Hydro consumption in Brazil increased by 4.5% in 2018 and reached 88 mtoe. In 2018, Brazil surpassed the US as the second largest hydro consumer in the world.
  • Renewables increased strongly in 2018 (+10.6%), but below the 10-year average (17.6%). Brazil accounted for two thirds of renewables consumption in South and Central America in 2018.
  • Electricity generation remained flat in 2018. Since 2014 it has remained fairly stable. In contrast, between 2009 and 2014 it increased at 4.8% each year.
  • Oil production in 2018 declined marginally to average 2.7 Mb/d. This was the first decline in production since 2013. Brazil is the 10th largest oil producer in the world.
  • Natural gas production dropped in 2018 by 7.4%. This is the first decline since 2009. The 10-year average growth is 8.9% p.a.
  • Brazil is the world’ second largest Biofuels producer. In 2018 production increased by 17%, reaching 401 Kboe/d, a new record high.