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Country insight – India

India’s primary energy consumption fell by 5.9% in 2020, the first fall in ‎consumption this century due to the coronavirus pandemic

Fast facts

1    Lockdowns and other coronavirus restrictions saw GDP decline by 7.2%‎


2    The largest decline in energy demand occurred in oil with a drop of 9.9% reflecting ‎reduced road and air transport activity


3    Coal consumption declined by 6.0% in 2020. India accounted for 17% of the global ‎decline in coal consumption


India’s primary energy ‎decline in 2020‎


Decline in carbon ‎emissions in 2020


Decrease in oil ‎consumption


Share of global coal ‎consumption

At a glance

  • Primary energy consumption in ‎India decreased from 33.9 to 32.0 ‎EJ, a reduction of -5.9%, in ‎contrast to the 10-year average of ‎‎+4.7%.‎
  • The combined share of energy ‎consumption from oil, gas and coal ‎fell from 90.6 to 89.7% and for ‎renewables increased from 3.9 to ‎‎4.5%.‎
  • Indian coal consumption declined ‎by 6.0% in 2020. At a global level, ‎India accounted for 17% of the ‎total decline in coal consumption. ‎
  • The share of coal in India’s ‎primary energy mix in 2020 was ‎‎55%, compared to 27% at a ‎global level and India still accounts ‎for 11.6% of global coal ‎consumption.‎
  • The decrease in coal consumption ‎was accompanied by minimal ‎‎(0.4%) increase in domestic ‎production. India was the third ‎largest producer of coal in the ‎world in 2020 (behind China and ‎Indonesia).‎
  • Natural gas consumption ‎increased slightly to 60 bcm (0.3% ‎increase). The share of natural gas ‎consumption in India’s primary ‎energy mix increased to 6.7% in ‎‎2020, compared to 6.3% in 2019 ‎and 8.2% in 2009.
  • Total electricity generation ‎declined from 1,604 TWh to 1,561 TWh, ‎a decline of 2.9%, in contrast to ‎the 10-year average of +6.2%. ‎Coal’s share in power generation ‎declined marginally from 74% in ‎‎2019 to 72% in 2020. Renewables ‎generation increased from 139 ‎TWh to 151 TWh.‎
  • Indian natural gas production ‎decreased 11.9%, the largest fall ‎since 2013 and compared to 10-‎year average decline of 3% p.a.‎
  • Indian biofuels production ‎decreased from 21.5 to 19.7 ‎kboe/d, a reduction of 8.1%, in ‎contrast to the 10-year average of ‎‎+26.2%.‎
  • CO2 emissions from energy use ‎decreased by 7.1%, compared to ‎the 10-year average increase of ‎‎4.5%.‎