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Country insight – India

Fast facts

1    Coal consumption grew by 8.7% in 2018. India accounted for 70% of the global increase in coal consumption


2    Renewables grew 27%, the fastest growth in the last 11 years. India was the fourth largest generator of renewable energy in 2018 behind China, the US, and Germany


3    The strong increase in energy demand, combined with a 0.9% reduction in carbon intensity, led to a 7% increase in carbon emissions

5.8% – Share of global energy consumption
Share of global energy consumption
12% – Share of global coal consumption
Share of global coal consumption
5.3% – Increase in oil consumption
Increase in oil consumption
+7% – Increase in carbon emissions
Increase in carbon emissions

At a glance

  • The rate of growth of primary energy consumption was 7.9% in 2018. This was the fastest pace over the past decade. 
  • Energy intensity grew 0.4% in 2018. This number contrasts with the 1.6% average decline over the previous 10 years.
  • Coal consumption increased 8.7% contributing 60% of the total increase in primary energy. 
  • At a global level, India accounted for 70% of the total increase in coal consumption. 
  • The share of coal in the Indian energy mix in 2018 was 56%, compared to 27% at a global level. 
  • Oil consumption grew by 5.3% in 2018 and surpassed 5- mb/d.
  • Natural gas grew 8.1%, but from a relative low level. The share of India in global gas consumption is 1.5%. LNG imports tripled over the past 10 years.
  • The strong increase in coal consumption was accompanied with a 7.5% increase in domestic production. India was the fourth largest producer of coal in the world in 2018.
  • Natural gas production decreased 0.7%, in line with past trends. Power generation grew 6.2% in line with the growth rates of the last decade.
  • Renewable energy grew 27%, covering around 30% of the total increase in power demand. In 2018, solar energy grew around 43% and wind generation 15%.
  • Coal share in power generation declined marginally from 76% in 2017 to 75% in 2018.
  • Natural gas used in power generation increased by 1.2%, its share of total generation declined to 4.8% from 10% in 2008.
  • Net CO2 emissions from energy use rose by 7.0%. India accounts for almost 25% of the total increase in global carbon emissions in 2018 but represents only 7% of global CO2 emissions.