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Country insight – India

The Indian energy system in 2021

India’s primary energy consumption bounced back in 2021 – at 3.7% above its pre-pandemic level in 2019. Except for nuclear and hydro, all fuels saw their consumption increase in 2021

Fast facts

1    Economic recovery post-Covid saw GDP increase by 8.8%


2    Coal was the fastest-growing fuel, at 8.1% above its pre-pandemic level


3    The share of renewables (excluding hydro) in power reached 10% for the first time


Increase in India’s primary energy consumption‎


Increase in carbon emissions‎


Increase in oil consumption‎


Increase in renewable primary energy

At a glance

  • Primary energy consumption increased from 32 to 35 EJ – a 10% annual increase.
  • The combined share of energy consumption from oil, gas and coal stood at 90%, similar to its pre-pandemic level.
  • Coal was the fastest-growing fuel, increasing 16%, and 8% above its 2019 level.
  • The share of coal in primary energy was 57%, compared to 24% at a global level; India accounts for 12.5% of global coal consumption.
  • India was the second-largest producer of coal in the world (behind China).
  • Natural gas consumption increased to 62 bcm (a 3.1% increase). However, the share of natural gas in primary energy decreased from 6.8% to 6.3%.
  • Natural gas production increased by 20% to 29 bcm, still below the peak of 47 bcm in 2010. LNG imports decreased by 8.1% to 33.6 bcm, with Qatar providing the largest share (41%).
  • Renewables grew by 13.2%, but their share of primary energy increased only by 0.1 percentage points to 5%.
  • India installed 10.3 GW of solar and 1.5 GW of onshore wind, with the solar additions being a record amount for India. The total installed capacity at the end of 2021 amounts to 49.3 GW for solar and 40.1 GW for onshore wind.
  • Total electricity generation increased from 1,563 TWh to 1,715 TWh, an increase of 10%. Coal’s share in power generation increased from 72% in 2019 to 74%. Renewables (excluding hydro) generation increased from 152 to 172 TWh, reaching the 10% share threshold for the first time, and surpassing hydro.
  • Indian biofuels production went from 23 to 37 kboe/d, an increase of 60%; biofuel consumption increased from 36 to 43 kboe/d, so India’s reliance on biofuels imports decreased.
  • CO2 emissions from energy use increased by 12% to over 2.5 Gt, exceeding its pre-pandemic level.