bp’s wider transformation is underway. While we’re mostly in oil & gas today, we’ve increased global investment into our lower carbon businesses, convenience stores and power trading from around 3% in 2019 to around 30% last year.
On November 28, 2023, a Virgin Atlantic Boeing 787 Dreamliner took off to make its way from London’s Heathrow Airport to JFK Airport in New York.
It was similar to the tens of thousands of flights that day in almost every way. Except for the fact that it crossed the Atlantic fuelled by sustainable aviation fuel (SAF).
The flight was a world first using SAF with 100% sustainable feedstock by a commercial airline across the Atlantic.
Aviation is one of the hardest industries in which to reduce carbon emissions.
This is because for all but the smallest aircraft, there are currently few practical alternatives to liquid fuels. Battery-powered planes, for example, are still in the early stages of development and the batteries would need to be smaller and lighter before they could be used on a commercial aircraft.
Meanwhile, more and more people around the world want to fly. By 2040, it’s forecast that there could be nearly 8 billion passenger journeys made each year.1
So, how can the industry handle this growth in air travel without a rise in emissions?
Typically, the sustainable feedstock element of SAF enables up to 80% lifecycle carbon emissions savings compared to the conventional jet fuel it replaces.
Compatible with existing engines and infrastructure.
Waste and residues turned into SAF.
SAF is a term that is generally used to refer to jet fuel that is produced from a proportion of sustainable feedstock as well as conventional fossil fuel feedstocks. SAF is also used to refer to just the sustainable feedstock element. The lifecycle carbon emission savings mentioned in this article (and elsewhere) relate only to the sustainable feedstock element of the fuel.
In the short to medium terms, SAF will likely be the main route to help decarbonize carbon emissions associated with aviation. The sustainable feedstock portion (SPK) is made from organic materials, such as waste oils, fats, and specialized non-food crops.
It’s chemically almost identical to conventional fossil jet fuel, which means it’s compatible with existing engines and infrastructure. It can also be transported using the same trucks and pipelines that transport traditional fuels.
But there is one big difference. The sustainable feedstock element of SAF (i.e. the renewable portion that is mixed with the conventional fossil jet fuel) can typically enable lifecycle carbon emissions savings of up to 80% compared to the conventional jet fuel it replaces.
At the moment, the SAF-fossil-blended fuel accounts for just 0.1% of the jet fuel used in the world. But that’s likely to grow massively in the next few decades, and we want to help meet the demand.
It’s why bp worked with Rolls-Royce, Virgin Atlantic and others to supply 56,300 litres of SPK to use in the SAF blend for this boundary-pushing flight.
Rightly, aviation has some of the strictest safety standards in the world. If you want to introduce a new fuel standard, you need to test, test and test again.
Current regulations state that commercial aircraft can use a maximum of 50% renewable feedstock fuel (also known as SPK) blended with conventional jet fuel. The purpose of this flight was to help build evidence that using 100% renewable content for the fuel is just as reliable – even over 5,000 kilometres of ocean.
The fuel for this flight was a blend of two renewable fuels. Around 88% was SPK. The remainder was synthesized aromatic kerosene (SAK), made from plant sugars, and supplied by Virent. The blend of the two fuels was necessary to ensure the fuel met the aircraft and engine requirements. A lot of science went into this!
But it wasn’t just a question of understanding the chemistry. The bp team developed a detailed plan for every step of the fueling process, including details on logistics, quality control and safety.
All of this followed extensive trials with sustainable aviation fuel on aircraft powered by Rolls-Royce’s engines – and comes a year after the Royal Air Force took to the skies over Oxfordshire for the UK’s first 100% SAF test flight, for which the SAF was supplied by bp.
And the result? There’s a lot more testing to do – with more flights and more engine types – before using SAF with 100% sustainable feedstock is approved for commercial air travel. But the evidence to date shows that it’s safe – and it works.
bp has a long history with the aviation industry – we’ve been selling aircraft fuel since 1926.2 We were involved in fueling the first SAF flight by an airline in 2008 (a Virgin Atlantic plane, incidentally) and today, we have supplied it to more than 30 locations worldwide and we co-process it at two of our refineries, too.
Last year, Rolls-Royce chose bp as their preferred SAF supply partner. We’ve since been working with them to test the product on their engines. The SAF bp supplied for this flight was blended by bp’s advanced fuels products team with the assistance of Air bp’s UK technical team and the terminals and pipelines team.
Working to help try to enable lifecycle carbon emissions savings associated with aviation is a long-term project. Commercial airlines operate on tight margins, and SAF is currently more expensive to produce than conventional jet fuel. This means the right policies will be essential for mainstreaming its use.
The good news is that in key geographies, these are starting to fall into place. And the more we test and learn, the more we can bring down costs.
We think SAF is part of the future, and bp is planning to invest in five new biofuels production facilities as part of our own ambition to help the world get to net zero.
The sky’s the limit.
The world’s planes can’t be easily electrified, so biofuels in the form of SAF offer the best chance of helping to enable lifecycle carbon emission savings associated with aviation over the short and medium terms.
SAF is currently blended with conventional jet fuel, but has the potential to completely replace it. First, though, this needs to be extensively tested.
This is why the world’s first transatlantic 100% SAF flight used by a commercial airline is a big deal.